Pollution of fresh and salt waters

Pollution of fresh and salt waters

Globally, it is estimated that 80% of industrial and municipal wastewater is discharged into the environment without any prior treatment, causing adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. This proportion is higher in least developed countries, where sanitation and wastewater treatment facilities are very poor.

Drink a glass of fresh, cold water as you read this, and you may think that water pollution is only a problem of far away places. But while most Europeans have access to safe drinking water, potentially harmful contaminants, from arsenic to copper and lead, have been found in tap water in every EU country, as well.

Still, we are not hopeless against the threat of polluted water. To better understand the problem and what we can do about it, here is an overview of what water pollution is, what causes it, and how we can protect ourselves.

The current problem of water pollution

The discharges into the waters destroy part of the aquatic ecosystems. Some species end up disappearing due to the rapid proliferation of invasive algae, which are nourished thanks to all the nutrients that the waste gives them. These multiply rapidly, taking up the space and oxygen in the water.


photo: harmful algae destroying ecosystems

Freshwater pollution

Deforestation in coastal areas and the proliferation of construction make the soils in these areas vulnerable. The paving does not allow the passage of river water seepage when it rains, which favors salt water seeping beneath and thus, the contamination of fresh water. As we can see, water pollution ends up destroying part of the natural ecosystem.

When salt water penetrates the freshwater aquifers, logically the components of the water are no longer the same. This causes the extinction of certain species and the invasion of others that can take over the place. In general, they tend to be more aggressive species, which kill others.

The intrusion of these salt waters can also cause subsidence in the land. The abuse of the construction of wells or canals favors the filtration of salt water into freshwater marshes. It is also true that these salt waters can pollute naturally through storms, for example, when sea level rises.

Already when a tiny part of salt water mixes with fresh water, the latter is no longer drinkable. Therefore, the decontamination of water and its purification end up becoming a vital process.

Salt water pollution

Regarding the pollution that occurs in salt water, we can say that this is mainly of terrestrial origin, particularly as a consequence of the emission of wastewater and industrial tributaries into rivers, which then carry polluting substances to the sea.

The main source of marine pollution is hydrocarbons, particularly oil tankers, which sometimes release large quantities of oil into the water. An example is the ecological disaster caused by the sinking of the oil-laden ship Prestige near the coasts of Spain and France and the oil tanker Jessica along the coasts of the Galapagos Islands. These have caused serious environmental problems and many damages to the health of humans due to the arrival of polluting substances to the coasts.

In addition, salt water can suffer from these other contaminations:

Pollution off the coast:
Includes all contaminations far from the coast; often caused by the desired spill during tank washing or from bilge discharge of large units or again, from naval accidents due to storms, collisions, explosions, structural failures or accidents to extraction platforms.

Coastal pollution:
It is the most harmful and dangerous form of pollution, because it is very difficult to eradicate once it comes into contact with the coast. Due to low sea level, the various units used for the service cannot operate; since it is useless to use collection machines, such as skimmers.

Fundamental here is human intervention, with manual extraction, and therefore, the main field of action of volunteers cleaning up beaches and collecting recyclable materials such as plastic bottles and plastic bags but also other waste.

Underwater pollution:
This type of contamination usually occurs after a fire (such as that of the “Refugio” oil tanker in the Gulf of Genoa) when the light component of the hydrocarbon evaporates and the heavy component precipitates and deposits on the bottom.

It has been 17 years since the sinking of the supertanker Haven, the most serious oil pollution in the Mediterranean. The consequences of this tragedy, although limited thanks to timely and efficient management of the emergency, have not yet been exhausted. Even today, from time to time, small amounts of hydrocarbons come out of the main wreck, and there are still many tar depositions over a large area of the seabed. Therefore, a recovery operation is needed on the main wreck of the Haven to eliminate the risk of leakage of hydrocarbons and oils, fuels due to corrosion of materials and collapse of the structures of the wreck itself.

Consequences of water pollution

We know that fresh and salt water end up mixing under the earth, in groundwater, unnoticed by the human eye. It is estimated that around 13 million tons of freshwater end up flowing into the oceans every year.

The incorrect use of agrochemical products, dangerous elements that are discharged for example by not properly recycling batteries, the incorrect location and poor functioning of sanitary devices, such as latrines or pits, cause the soil to filter everything until it reaches the groundwater. The main contaminants found in groundwater, in addition to organic matter, are heavy metals, hydrocarbons, chemicals, microplastics etc.

Influence of contaminated waters on ecosystems

There are several causes of soil and water pollution. Probably the one that stands out the most is industrial pollution, followed by agricultural overexploitation, tourism, health centers and domestic waste. There should be more awareness under tourists to properly sort and throw away their waste from picnics such as food packaging, plastic bottles, plastic cups and plastic bags. Much of this waste can be recycled if sorted correctly. Also under normal households awareness of sorting and recycling waste has to be improved to prevent further water pollution. Another area where more measures are still needed to counteract pollution are the emissions from motor vehicles. The gases they emit also end up in the water, since everything that rises falls through precipitation, becoming more acidic and causing acid rain. There is still a lack of more measures regarding human behavior with spills and chemicals.

Another spill that causes great damage to ecosystems is oil. Unfortunately, there are few industries that take care of the environment seriously, making an economic issue out of everything. Waste and plastic recycling can be economically feasible if done the right way, though. It is not just a financial burden but can also be an economic gain model.

Lack of water

All these factors affect the health of humans and animals. In addition to negatively affecting other factors, such as the migration of animals due to lack of resources, for example. Food shortages and lack of decent water force them to change territory, and for those who are unlucky, death will follow.

Know the main sources of pollution

There are several polluting sources and they are classified as follows:

Point sources: Pollutants that come from this type of sources are those that access the place through fixed points, such as schools, industries, buildings, etc.

Diffuse sources: Here the source of pollution comes from varied, extensive and wide places. Urban sites, agricultural areas even atmospheric deposition.

Natural sources: These were caused by fires or volcanic activity.

Technological sources: Regarding industrial and domestic consumption, we are talking about chemical products. Also included are motor transports that require lubricants.

There are various degrees of pollution

The waters are divided into several zones according to the degree of contamination as follows:

Polisaprobiana: This area is characterized by being extremely polluted, with little oxygen and many organic compounds. Microorganisms abound in this place, especially anaerobic bacteria that are responsible for fermenting and decomposing.

Mesosaprobiana: This zone is characterized by being moderate. Organic substances are mineralized and oxidized. Bacteria are also considered, but they are not decomposers.

Oligosaprobian: This area is clean. Microorganisms are barely visible and there are no bacteria.

Saprobic: is the degree of contamination in waters that present the remains of decomposing animals or plants. This generates the influx of microorganisms and bacteria. To determine the intensity of the contamination of these waters, the presence of bacteria such as Escherichia coli or Streptococus faecalis, present in many humans, is taken into consideration.

Diseases related to contaminated water

Due to the characteristics it may have, water can be an important source of contamination for the transmission of countless diseases. These can be common, such as gastroenteritis, or also very serious, such as cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever, leptospirosis, among others.
Water contamination can cause certain diseases. The most important and worrying are the following:

Anemia:
This is the lack of red blood cells, which complicates the passage of oxygen to the muscles. There are different degrees, which can cause loss of skin color, drier lips and tongue, and damage to the nails and eyes.

Botulism:
A disease caused by food contamination, produced by bacteria that are usually found in conservation cans that have been poorly treated, there is no contagion between people.

Malaria:
A disease that can be spread between people, but is transmitted due to the bites of mosquitoes that have been in contaminated or water of poor condition. Although the mildest symptoms are fever, it can lead to death in more severe cases that are not treated.

The 5 best recycling ideas for plastic bottles

The 5 best recycling ideas for plastic bottles

We use and throw away an incredible amount of plastic bottles every day. It is true that most people throw them in the recycling bin. But what else can you do to take advantage of these empty plastic bottles. How can you reuse plastic bottles? If you don’t know where to start, we will show you the 5 best uways to reuse empty plastic bottles that most people don’t know about.

The best recycling ideas for plastic bottles – Multipurpose spatula

If the plastic bottle has a handle to it, you can cut it from the bottle and by just doing that, you will already have a multipurpose spatula. Now, you can use your recycled bottle spatula to serve rice, spices or whatever you want.

The best recycling ideas for plastic bottles – Toothbrush holder

Another great idea to recycle plastic bottles is as original as it is practical. Take a 50cl bottle and cut it in half with a hot knife. Then, roll up your toothbrush and toothpaste in a small towel, and place the roll inside the bottle. Screw on the lid and you will have a dental kit that does not get wet and protects your toothbrush.

The best recycling ideas for plastic bottles – Plate separator

Probably one of the least known ways to recycle plastic bottles, is to use them to build a tower of dishes. For this purpose you will need 5-liter bottles. Cut the bottle into four horizontal sections and you will have four elements to separate dishes, protect them from dust, and conserve heat and humidity. They are much cheaper than the ones you can find in stores and are just as great.

The best recycling ideas for plastic bottles – Sewing kit

Take a bottle and cut it in half. Make symmetrical holes on both sides to put a straw through. Each straw will hold one spool of thread, so you must make as many pairs of holes as you can, taking into account the size of your spool. Put a spool on each straw, until all holes are filled. Then, close the bottle with the cap. If you make another hole in the center of the bottle, you can get the thread you need out from there. It is one of the most practical ways to reuse plastic bottles.

The best recycling ideas for plastic bottles – Vacuum cleaner

Grab a hair dryer and put a mouth mask on the back. Then, place a 33 or 50 cl bottle cut in half, on the mask, in such a way that the cut body is stuck to the dryer. When you turn on the hair dryer, you will see that it has become a wonderful vacuum cleaner that allows you to access the most remote areas of your home. Unknown to many but one of the best ways to reuse empty bottles there is.

Doubts about waste recycling? Here are the most common questions

Doubts about waste recycling? Here are the most common questions

Recycling is much more than a social commitment, it is the way in which each one of us can take care of the environment in an active and direct way. But how much do you actually know about recycling? We will give you the answers to the most common questions about recycling.

Where to dispose of contact lenses?

The first thing you have to know is that contact lenses are not biodegradable. This means that they cannot be flushed down the toilet, as you would be contributing to contaminating the water with microplastics.

So do we have to put them in the recycling container? Well neither, since it is doesn’t belong to any type of container. Contact lenses go directly to the residual waste container. The one with mixed waste that cannot be sorted out for recycling.

Where to put the pizza boxes?

The pizza boxes are made of cardboard but can they be thrown away with old newspapers? The answer to this question has caused some controversy.

According to environmental associations such as Greenpeace, Ecologists in Action and Friends of the Earth, no matter how much cardboard it contains, it should not be thrown into the paper container, since a stained cardboard box can no longer be recycled. Therefore it should go to the residual waste container. Importantly though, not the whole box tends to get dirty, so you can remove the clean part and throw it in the paper recycling container.

What belongs with organic waste?

The organic waste container is not yet present in all cities, but it is on its way. In some municipalities there are initiatives to create composting areas by neighborhoods or communities. In others it is decided to include one more container for organic waste.

Be that as it may be, in this container you have to put the remains of food (e.g. egg shells, infusion or tea bags, shellfish remains), used kitchen paper, potting soil or garden remains, authentic cork stoppers, grounds of coffee etc. In short, everything that has an untreated natural origin or is biodegradable.

What cannot be included in this container are pads or diapers. You cannot put droppings of any kind, wipes (even if they say they are biodegradable on the package), remains of the ashtray or coffee capsules, cat litter or textile remains with organic waste.

Where can you throw away used oil?

Used oil should not be thrown down the sink or the toilet, it is essential that you take this into account and act accordingly.

Recycling oil is the simplest thing there is. You can use it to turn it into homemade soap for example. You will be impressed by how easy it is and how few materials or ingredients you need. On the other hand, if you prefer to recycle, you simply have to store it at home in a plastic bottle (you can reuse the water or oil bottles) and fill them up.

All oils can be recycled but you cannot mix food oils with motor or industrial oils.

Where to throw away coffee capsules?

Many misunderstandings circulate on the internet regarding the recycling of these coffee capsules. The first thing you have to know is that these should not be put in the recycling container, regardless whether they are aluminium or plastic.

In some areas, there are collection points with a section for coffee capsules. Another option is to check with the brand of coffee capsules as they usually have collection areas themselves.

How to throw away tetra bricks?

It’s understandable that there is confusion among many people about tetra bricks, whether they are for milk, juice or any other product. In its composition, it has a high cardboard content, which is why the controversy arises. Does it belong with paper recycling?

Certainly not! Tetra bricks also contain plastic and aluminum, two compounds that make them suitable for recycling with other packaging materials.

Is it true that plastic waste is not being recycled?

Is it true that plastic waste is not being recycled?

And there we are, trusting that all our effort in separating waste and going out two, three or four times to distribute garbage in each container will pay off. And now they tell you that that the garbage that is sorted out for recycling is not being recycled? Is this really true? Are our efforts really in vain? Is it true that all that glitters in terms of recycling is not really gold? Well, there are many aspects that have to be taken into account and that we are going to discover below.

True or false? Everything is being recycled

They insist on the need to recycle but, when it comes to doing so, it is not an easy process. You have to know, before starting, that barely half of the waste generated is recyclable. Of course, it is not a bad figure and that doing this would already be an achievement for the planet. But if you were a person obsessed with recycling, you will probably feel disappointed. However, more and more work is being done so that the chances of recycling are increasing.

Is plastic recycled yes or no?

One of our greatest desires, having become aware of the value of the environment, is to recycle plastic. Yes, it can be recycled, but beware, not everything! In fact, hardly a fraction of all the plastics we throw away can be recovered. The problem is that plastic is usually mixed with other materials, that is, contaminated or accompanied by food and various elements. Thus, the plastic suffers and ends up in landfills.

For plastic to be one hundred percent recyclable, we would have to eliminate other non-plastic materials that accompany it, as well as food remains, among others. That is, plastic is usually contaminated. To recycle it, it has to be clean of non-reusable waste.

For example, a plastic bottle has to be stripped of its label and of the liquid it contains, be it water or soda, milk or alcoholic beverages. Only then can it be deposited in the container for plastics and be suitable to go to the plastic container to continue the recycling chain.

Recycling plastic would be a help to the environment. Because plastic does not disappear, but lasts over time, causing the accumulation of garbage that does not degrade. In addition, the accumulation of plastics causes damage to health and the ecosystem.

Do you want to recycle responsibly? The next time you have plastic on your hands, clean it well before throwing it away. And take them to a recycling container for the material in question. Because plastics can have a second life!

Plastic Recycling Machines: Recycling Lines

Plastic Recycling Machines: Recycling Lines

HARD PLASTIC RECYCLING

Hard plastic objects can appear in many shapes and types. Each object can have specific requirements to the recycling process. We have a standard solution available for general hard plastic waste, which are suitable for most common plastics. For specific requirements, optional machines can be added to the line. The final product can be plastic flakes or virgin pellets. Suitable plastic types are amongst others PP, PE, PS, PET, PVC, ABS, BOPP etc.

PLASTIC FILM RECYCLING

Plastic bags and foil generally have specific needs to the recycling equipment that are different from hard plastic. To meet these requirements, we have developed standard solutions for the recycling of plastic bags and foil of most common plastic materials. These lines are mainly suitable for PE and PP but can also be used for PET, PS, ABS etc. Main part of the line is crushing and washing equipment. For specific requirements, options are available for sorting and regaining hard plastic particles or virgin pellets.

PET BOTTLE RECYCLING

Recycling of PET bottles is a product specific task for which we have three standardized solutions with many options. The basic part of the line consists of simple crushing and washing equipment. For higher demands to the quality of the recycled material we have a medium and high-end solution with extra washing equipment. There are plenty of options available for sorting out foreign materials. A granulation line can be added at the end to produce high-quality virgin pellets.

ELECTRIC CABLE RECYCLING

Electric cables generally consist of an evenly divided plastic and metal part. The main task in recycling them is to sort out the valuable metal. We have line solutions available that start with crumbling the cables into small particles of a few millimeters. There are three solutions available with different cutting power for different diameters. After crumbling the cables, a metal-plastic separator separates the metal from the rest. Our lines are suitable for both aluminum and copper cables.

TIRE RECYCLING

Car and truck tires are mainly made out of rubber. To regain the rubber for new purposes the tires have to be destroyed and the metal wires and fibers have to be removed. Since machines for destroying complete tires at once need a lot of force we have next to two automatic solutions a more economical semi-automatic solution as well for lower capacities. The semi-automatic solution needs more human workforce. After a repeating process of crushing and removal of metals and fibers, the recycled rubber will be available in particles of a few millimeters.

Plastic Recycling Machines: Regeneration

Plastic Recycling Machines: Regeneration

Washing and crushing of plastic objects is the main part of creating recycled plastic that is suitable for further use. Still, it is not the end. Many production processes have higher requirements to the recycled plastic. To create again the original virgin plastic material further processing is necessary for which we have a few solutions available.

Agglomerator


This machine can be an economical solution for creating hard plastic raw material out of plastic foil and film. The rotating blades of the agglomerator squeeze the film scraps together. During this process, heat is created and the thin film melts together to small chunks that are better suitable to use in further production processes than the light and fugitive film scraps.

Packing Silo


After all processes are finished and the desired final recycled product is produced, the product has to be packed. Mostly this is done in big-bags. With the packing silo this packing process is convenient and when the bag is full, the bag can be changed by closing the silo for a while and changing the bag. Like this the recycling process doesn’t have to be interrupted while changing the bag.

Granulation Extruder


The most professional way of regenerating virgin material is a granulation extruder. The extruder melts the plastic completely and squeezes it through a mold with defined holes. After cooling down the plastic strings can be cut into pellets with defined dimensions looking the same as the original virgin pellets. Granulation extruders are available with water and air cutters.

Plastic Recycling Machines: Cutting

Plastic Recycling Machines: Cutting

Generally, old plastic or rubber objects have to be destroyed and cut into small particles to be able to reuse them and to create new products. There are different cutting systems available with different applications. Main criteria for the selection of the right method is the required input and output size of the material

Granulator


A granulator or crusher is maybe the easiest way to crumble plastic objects. It is especially suitable for smaller bulk objects like plastic bottles or small containers or cups. Also for long objects like pipes and hoses, a crusher can be the ideal solution. The big advantage of a crusher is the relative continuous material flow and the defined output size. Thanks to the perforation screen, the output particles are of relative similar dimensions.

Single-Shaft Shredder


For more massive bulk objects, a single-shaft shredder could be more suitable than a crusher. In comparison to a crusher a single-shaft shredder is stronger and less likely to block when cutting heavy objects. The single-shaft shredder works just like a crusher with a perforation screen and defined output size. A hydraulic push block takes care that especially bigger and massive objects are pushed towards the cutting shaft and are cut layer after layer.

Double-Shaft Shredder


When you are dealing with big and thin-walled objects like car tires or voluminous containers, a double-shaft shredder is the right way to go. With two shafts gearing into each other, the double-shaft shredder can easily compress and tear apart thin-walled vessels and tires. It can also be a good solution for long entangled bulks of electric cables and wires, which are too heavy for a single-shaft shredder to take at once. The output size of the double-shaft shredder is undefined and can vary heavily.

Tire Strip Cutter


As a special solution for cutting car tires, the tire strip cutter cuts a car tire into a long strip of rubber. This long strip of rubber is easier to process for further cutting machines. By taking advantage of a tire strip cutter high investment costs for heavy machines that are able to crumble a complete car tire at once can be avoided. This machine especially suitable for economic tire recycling lines with lower capacities.

Tire Block Cutter


The tire block cutter is made in particular to follow the tire strip cutter in the recycling process. The rubber strips that are produced by the tire strip cutter can be cut into small pieces by the tire block cutter. A medium range crusher can afterwards easily crumble these blocks to particle sizes of a few millimeters. In this way, high costs for purchasing and running heavy shredders are rendered unnecessary.

Plastic Recycling Machines: Sorting (Part 2)

Plastic Recycling Machines: Sorting (Part 2)

In our previous article about plastic recycling machines we already explained several machines for sorting and separating different plastics and waste materials. We talked about the tire debeader, bale breaker, label separator, sorting table and color sorting machine. Today we continue with some more separation and sorting machines.

Magnetic Separator


Often plastic and rubber waste can contain steel parts that were integrated in the original product or that were mixed during the waste collection process. The steel parts can not only degrade the quality of the recycled product but also damage machines that were not intended to process steel parts. A magnetic belt running above a conveyor belt can pick out all these steel parts and collect them in a container for disposal.

Metal Detector


Despite many efforts to clear the plastic waste from metal contaminants by means of automatic or manual sorting, there still can end up some metal parts in the material flow at the entrance of the recycling line. To ensure high quality recycled plastic and protect the machines from damages, a metal detector can be installed at the beginning to stop the input flow when a metal part is detected so it can be removed before any damage or quality issue occurs.

Non-Ferrous Metal Separator


Plastic products can often contain metal parts like aluminum, messing or copper locks or joints. In addition, could aluminum cans have found their way in between plastic bottles waste. These metal contaminants can have bad influence on the quality of recycled plastic or rubber. To remove these metal parts from the plastic or rubber waste, a special technique is used that creates an electro-magnetic field that expulses conductive objects and collects them in a separate container.

Vibrating Sieve


A vibrating sieve separates particles based on their size. This can be particles of the same material to ensure a certain particle size or it can be to separate dust and fibers from the actual product. The perforation of the sieve decides the size of the particles that can pass though. The vibration of the screen takes care of a smooth flow of material and a qualitative separation of the smaller particles.

Metal-Plastic Separator


Certain products contain equal amounts of metals and plastic. This is the case with electric cables for example where the aluminum or copper core is completely covered in rubber and plastic. These plastic and metal fractions are bound so closely together that the only way to separate them is to cut the product into tiny particles. After cutting the particles can be separated based on their different mechanical characteristics. This separation is realized with an inclined vibrating screen that uses the natural frequency to guide the metal and plastic parts into different directions.

Plastic Recycling Machines: Sorting (Part 1)

Plastic Recycling Machines: Sorting (Part 1)

One of the main tasks in recycling waste material is to separate the different fractions or remove contaminating materials from the valuable main part. We have several solutions available to separate different plastics or metals from plastic and rubber.

Tire Debeader


Especially useful for a semi-automatic tire recycling line is the tire debeader. There are different techniques available to remove the steel bead from the tire before starting the actual recycling process. By removing the bead on forehand, investment money can be saved for more expensive machines to crumble and separate the steel from the rubber. This method is especially economical for lower capacities.

Bale Breaker


In many cases, waste material is pre-sorted and tied up in bales. To start recycling the material these bales have to be opened so the material can be treated separately. The bale breaker breaks the straps around the bales and loosens the objects contained in the bales. This makes it possible to wash off dust effectively and sort out contaminating materials such as metals before starting the actual recycling process.

Label Separator


When dealing with hard plastic objects like bottles or containers that contain labels, there can always be some label material left even after intensive washing and sorting. The label separator working with air is an efficient way to remove the remaining labels from the recycled material and to improve the purity of the recycled material.

Sorting Table


At the sorting table, the waste material passes by on a belt conveyor while workers on fixed positions analyze the waste and pick out foreign materials. Collection bins or discharge holes are fixed on each position to easily remove the sorted out contaminants from the sorting platform.

Color Sorting


For high-end customers with strict requirements to the quality of the recycled material our color-sorting machine is indispensable. The color sorting machine works with optical color recognition and sorts out the particles with a different color. It can be used to separate differently colored materials or to sort out remaining contaminants to increase the purity level of the recycled material.

Plastic Recycling Machines: Transport

Plastic Recycling Machines: Transport

Often we get questions from people about what machines they need to handle their materials. Often, it’s not that clear what the purpose of every machine is and what recycling machine you need to reach your goal. Therefore, we are starting a new series of posts where we will try to explain different recycling machines and their purposes. Today we will start with explaining more about transport and how material is moved from one machine to another to automate the whole recycling process. The type of the material decides mainly what mean of transport should be used. There are different solutions available for solid objects, dry bulk materials and wet bulk materials.

Belt Conveyor


The belt conveyor is mainly used for solid objects. It can be for the input into the line or intermediate transport between machines within the line. The belt conveyor can be suitable as well for dry bulk material such as plastic or rubber flakes. The advantage of the belt conveyor is the open access to the passing material, which is especially useful during the sorting process. Machines and workers can screen the material as it passes by and remove contaminating materials.

Blower Fan


For the transport of bulk materials such as plastic and rubber flakes or powder to higher levels the blower fan with transport tubes is the most compact and efficient solution. A strong blower fan accelerates the air, which blows the bulk material with ease straight into the height without occupying much space on the ground. With this process material can be elevated to many meters above the ground.

Screw Conveyor


The main function of the screw conveyor is to transport wet bulk materials like washed plastic flakes or wet rubber particles. The position of the screw blades and the complete enclosure provides the ideal circumstances to achieve efficient transport of the material. During the process, the heavy water is removed and no energy is wasted to move the water with the plastic or rubber. The water is collected at the bottom of the conveyor in a reservoir and easy to discharge.